The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body enabling a wide range of movements including, forward flexion, abduction, adduction, external rotation, internal rotation, and 360-degree circumduction.
Thus, the shoulder joint is considered the most insecure joint of the body but the support of ligaments, muscles and tendons function to provide the required stability.
The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage. Damage of the cartilage in the shoulder joint causes shoulder arthritis.
A break in a bone that makes up the shoulder joint is called a shoulder fracture.
Pain in the shoulder may suggest an injury, which is more common in athletes participating in sports such as swimming, tennis, pitching, and weightlifting. The injuries are caused due to the over usage or repetitive motion of the arms.
Rotator Cuff Tear
A rotator cuff is a group of tendons in the shoulder joint that provides support and enables a wide range of motion. A major injury to these tendons may result in rotator cuff tears. It is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in middle-aged and older individuals.
Shoulder Labral Tear
Traumatic injury to the shoulder or overuse of the shoulder (throwing, weightlifting) may cause the labrum to tear. In addition, aging may weaken the labrum leading to injury.
Shoulder arthroscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic and surgical procedure for conditions and injuries involving the bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and muscles of the shoulder joint.
Total shoulder replacement surgery is performed to relieve symptoms of severe shoulder pain and disability due to arthritis. In this surgery, the damaged articulating parts of the shoulder joint are removed and replaced with artificial prostheses.
Rotator Cuff Repair
Rotator cuff repair is a surgery to repair an injured or torn rotator cuff. It is usually performed arthroscopically on an outpatient basis. An arthroscope, a small, fiber-optic instrument consisting of a lens, light source, and video camera.
Shoulder Labrum Reconstruction
Traumatic injury to the shoulder, overuse of the shoulder associated with excessive throwing or weightlifting can cause a labral tear. It may also result from a weakened labrum due to aging.